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A dental Airotor handpiece or dentist's Airotor handpiece is a small, high-speed Airotor handpiece used during dental procedures, usually to remove decay and shape tooth structure prior to the insertion of a filling or crown. A dental Airotor handpiece may also be used in the cleaning and shaping of root canals during endodontic treatment, or to remove old or temporary fillings or crowns prior to the insertion of new or permanent restorations. The term "dental Airotor handpiece" is considered the more colloquial form of the term "dental handpiece," although it can also be construed as to include the power source for one or more handpieces, a "dental engine." "Handpiece" and "engine" are more generic and euphemistic terms for generic dental tools.


 Various authors has given various classification of handpieces based on their speed.

 some are given as follows:


  • Low or slow speed - below 12,000 rpm
  • Medium or intermediate speed - 12,000 to 200,000 rpm
  • High or ultra-speeds - above 200,00 rpm



  • Ultra -Low speed- 300 to 3,000 rpm
  • Low speed-3,000 to 6,000 rpm
  • Medium High speed- 20,000 to 45,000 rpm
  • High speed- 45,000 to 100,000 rpm
  • Ultra-high speed- 100,000 rpm and more



  • Conventional or Low speed - below 6,000 rpm
  • Intermediate or high speed - 6,000 to 100,000 rpm
  • Ultra or Super speeds - above 100,000 rpm


Kilpatric has further classified the ultra high speed handpiece into three classes:

  • Type I – the gear driven centre-angle handpiece, upto1,25,000 rpm.
  • Type II – the belt driven contra-angle handpiece upto 2,00,000 rpm.
  • Type III – turbine driven air contra-angle handpiece upto 3,00,000 rpm and higher.






  • For cleaning teeth
  • Occasional caries excavation
  • Finishing and polishing procedures.


•Better tactile sensation

•Less chance for overheating cut surfaces


•Time consuming
•Requires relatively heavy force application at the operating site.
•Produces vibrations causing patient discomfort.
•Slower cavity preparation which increases operators fatigue & patients discomfort.
•Burs have a tendency to roll out of the tooth preparation
•Carbide bur blades break easily at low speeds-Brittle blades


Medium speed :


•Cavity preparation

•Placing retentive grooves and bevels

•For areas of limited visibility


•Positive tactile sense

•Controlled cutting of tooth structure


•Slower cavity preparation which increases operators fatigue & patients discomfort •Increased heat production.



•For tooth preparation

•Removing old restorations.


  • Cutting instruments remove tooth structure faster with less pressure, vibration & heat generation
  • Number of rotary cutting instruments needed is reduced because smaller sizes are more universal in application
  • Greater ease of operation for operator
  • Instruments last longer
  • Patients are generally less apprehensive because annoying vibrations and operating time are decreased
  • Smaller stones can be used at the increased speeds.
  • Less fatigue results both for the patient and operator.
  • Due to high speed, very light pressure is required.
  • Less vibrations are felt by the patient.
  • The chairside time for a given preparation is considerably reduced.
  • Trauma to the pulp is reduced.
  • The efficiency and life of the cutting tools is increased.
  • Because of small tools, control is easy.
  • Removal of old amalgam and gold restorations is easy.



  • Rise in temperature
  • Less tactile sense so overcutting possible
  • Air –water spray can impair visibility
  • More chances of iatrogenic errors
  • The increased speed creates increased temperatures in the tooth.Therefore some method of cooling the tooth more efficiently is required not to injure the pulp. This necessitates additional equipment.
  • When a dentist changes from the lower speeds, which utilize a pressure in pounds, to high speeds which need only a pressure in ounces, he must develop a new technique and retrain himself to a new tactile sense.
  • To operate at high speeds good visibility of the cutting instrument is necessary to avoid over cutting.
  • Due to the ease with which tooth tissue is removed, caution must be taken not to injure the proximal enamel of the adjacent healthy tooth and the gingiva.
  • High speeds result in greater wear on the working parts of the handpiece, necessitating more frequent repairs and replacements.
  • Unless used properly, high speeds have a tendency to create striations on a tooth surface.
  • The ideal preparation for any type of restoration cannot be accomplished by using high speed equipment alone. The final exactness and finishing line can best be established by instruments revolving at moderate speeds.



A number of couplings are available to connect the air-turbine and micro-motor to the hoses of the instrument delivery units. 
Two of the commonest fitting used are: 
Borden two-hole connector – one for compressed air and smaller hole for water coolant 
Mid-west 4 holes connector – one for compressed air, One for exhaust air let
Other two smaller holes for air and water coolant. 


Pulpal precautions:

  • Injury to the pulp is caused due to mechanical vibration, heat generation, desiccation of the dentin and transaction of the odontoblastic process.
  • The Pulpal sequelae, take 2 weeks to 6 months, depending on degree of trauma.
  • The remaining tissue is effective in protecting the pulp in proportion to the square of it thickness.
  • Factors that produce heat:
  • Steel burs > than carbide burs.
  • diamond abrasives > carbide burs.
  • Air coolant: Air coolant in itself is insufficient. It absorbs less unwanted heat & also desiccates the dentin. Used for finishing procedures only.
  • Air-water spray: Air-water spray is universally used to cool, moisten and clear the operating site. It also, cleans and cools the cutting tool thus increasing tool life. During cutting procedures, a smear layer is formed which acts as a bandage. However, smear layer is still porous. Air spray produces desiccation. Air is applied only to the extent of Air is applied only to the extent of removing excess moisture, leaving a glistening removing excess moisture, leaving a glistening surface behind. Surface behind.

Soft tissue precautions:

  • Soft tissue precautions should be taken on the lips, tongue and cheek
  • Rubber dam is used for this purpose.
  • operator should have good access for handpiece use.
  • Retraction of soft tissues should be done by assistant / retraction type saliva ejector
  • Never remove a rotating handpiece from mouth.
  • The chance of mechanical pulp involvement during caries excavation is more with hand instruments than with rotary instruments. Residual caries can be removed using a bur at low speed and light intermittent forces. High-speed hand pieces must be used just above the stalling speed to improve tactile sensation

 Eye precautions

  • Should wear protective glasses which protect from airborne particles during cutting    procedures.
  • High-volume evacuation which removes particles of old restorations, tooth structure, bacteria and other debris.
    Ear precautions:

Air-turbine handpieces produce a high-pitched can cause hearing loss.

Potential damage to hearing depends on:

  • Intensity or loudness (decibels- db)
  • Frequency (cps)
  • Duration of the noise
  • Susceptibility of the individual
  • Auditory threshold, temporary threshold shift, permanent threshold shift
  • Air turbine handpieces at 30 pounds → 70 – 94 db at high frequency.
  •  Noise levels > 75 dB @ of 1000 – 8000 cps→ hearing damage.
  • Protective measures are recommended for 85 db @ 300 – 4800 cps.
  •  Protection is mandatory at 95 db.
  • Use of handpiece less than 30 minutes per day.
  • Earplugs, sound proof rooms with absorbing materials on walls and floor Anti-noise devices can be used to cancel the unwanted sounds as well.
  • Inhalation precautions:

Aerosols and vapors are responsible.

  • Aerosols are fine dispersion in air of water, tooth debris, micro-organisms and / or restorative materials.
  • Cutting amalgams or composite resin produce both sub-micron particles and vapors.
  • Vapors from cutting amalgam - mercury & that from composite resins -monomers.
  • Inhalation can produce alveolar irritation & tissue reactions.
  • A face mask filters out bacteria and fine particulate matter but not mercury or monomer vapors.

What causes failure in dental handpiece?

  • Bearings will generally fail first, mostly because of:
  • Debris
  • Excessive air pressure
  • Excessive temperatures during sterilization
  • Side load stress
  • Water from air storage tank of compressor
  • Use of bent burs or a bur that is not fully seated
  • Using low cost ball bearings of unknown producers
  • Rapid cool downs of handpieces after sterilization with cold water. Rapid cool downs could cause warping of handpiece components and you could also introduce contaminants onto your sterilized instruments.
  • Running handpieces without burs. Doing so could cause damage to the spindle/chuck assemblies.
  • Irregular lubrication. The chuck must be lubricated at least once a week to keep it clean and functioning well. Debris can clog the chuck and interfere with holding the bur.
  • Very important is to use correct burs. One of most common failure in dental turbines is the using of incorrect burs. Unfortunately, there are many thinner and softer burs on the market coming from low costs productions and in turn available at attractive prices. If burs are too narrow or to soft, the chuck cannot hold them well. During the rotation of 300.000 revolutions per minute or more, incorrect burs will sooner or later start to deviate and consequently cause failure of chuck mechanism.
  • Another fact that causes bur eccentricity is guiding bushing (a hole into which bur is inserted) non-resistance to wear. The guiding bushing must be made of carbide or hardened steel and it must be separated from chuck (see pictures below). Many after-market producers of dental handpiece rotors combine the chuck and guiding bushing into one part because it simplifies the spindle design and thus saves costs. But this technique is not optimal for the bushing’s wear resistance.  Pressures that are put on the bur during operation can create wear in the guiding bushing, giving the bur more space to move radially. Because of this radial play dentists cannot work precisely with their handpiece anymore. Increased play will also reduce bearing lifetime. 


  • The instrument needs to be disinfected after every usage to prevent infection during succeeding incisions. Due to the mechanical structure of the device, this must not be done with alcoholic disinfectant, as that would destroy the lubricants. Instead it has to be done in an autoclave after removing the airotor handpiece, washing the instrument with water and lubricating it.



What are the brands selling Airotor handpieces online in India?

Apple, being, bestodent, bein-air, denext, Chinese, easy, indian,NSK, ORO, Sirona, Tornado, W & H, Waldent and woodpecker are the brands selling quality dental ultrasonic scalers online in India.


Why buy airotor handpieces from

The team at works dedicatedly towards procurement and distribution of quality dental products across India. The equipment and materials are genuine and are of high quality. No where else in India can you find the prices that offers, with assured quality standards. We aim at revolutionizing the dental material supply industry making it easier for every dentist to compare the qualities of a lot of products before making a choice. Handpiecs are available at lowest prices in India with wide range of Dental Hand Pieces . Free Shipping. Cash on delivery option is available.