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Ultrasonic scalers are used to remove calculus rapidly from the tooth surface. The scaling tip vibrates in the ultrasonic range of 20-45 kHz (i.e. 20,000 to 45,000 times per second), with an optimum frequency between 18 kHz and 32kHz.
Different types of ultrasonic scalers:
The two very popular types of ultrasonic scalers used today are Magnetostrictive and Piezoelectric.
Magnetostrictive ultrasonic units:
Piezoelectric ultrasonic units:
Parts of an Ultrasonic Scaler:
The component parts of an ultrasonic scaler equipment are:
a) The control box which contains a
2.water speed control
b) Headpiece cable
d) Ultrasonic inserts or tips
Advantages of Ultrasonic Scalers over hand instruments:
The advances in dentistry are aimed at improving the present standards of treatment available. In the same way, ultrasonic scalers provide the following advantages over traditional hand instrumentation:
Mode of action of ultrasonic scalers:
The tips of the ultrasonic scaler move back and forth thereby facilitating removal of plaque and calculus from the tooth surfaces. The acoustic streaming occurring concurrently produce a constant flushing action. This helps the scaler to remove the bacterial biofilm and loosen the debris present. The tip of the ultrasonic scaler comes in contact with the fluid to create a large amount of minute bubbles. This process is called cavitation. These bubbles implode releasing tremendous force which tears away the cell wall of the pathogens. This helps in loosening calculus and easier removal. During the process, heat is generated. Hence the tip should not be placed over a single area of the tooth for a long time. Rather the tip should constantly move over the teeth to avoid any thermal damage to the pulp.
The primary modes of action of ultrasonic are –
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