Rotary Files


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Rotary Files

Endodontic Rotary Files manufactured from nickel-titanium alloy have proven to be the most important part of root canal instrumentation. Over the last three decades, rotary files design has been scientifically improved and rapid progress has been made in manufacturing, as well as understanding of the Ni-Ti alloy. Clinical procedures and ideal working parameters are still being refined as new instruments continue to be introduced to the market.

Why to Use Endo Rotary File?

The fundamental aim of endodontic treatment is to prevent or cure apical periodontitis. One of the main objectives of root canal preparation is to shape and clean the root canal system effectively whilst maintaining the original configuration without creating any iatrogenic events such as instrument fracture, external transportation, ledge, or perforation. Preparation of the root canal system is recognized as being one of the most important stages in root canal treatment which includes both enlargement and shaping of the complex 1,2 endodontic space together with its disinfection . A variety of instruments and techniques have been developed and described for this critical stage of root canal treatment.

NiTi Endodontics Rotary Files

Over the last few years, endodontics has undergone a complete revolution with the introduction of the Nickel Titanium alloy for the manufacture of manual instruments initially and then rotary 3 endodontic instruments. The extraordinary characteristics of super-elasticity and strength of the NiTi alloy have made it possible to manufacture rotary instruments with double, triple and quadruplet taper compared to the traditional standard .02 taper of the stainless steel hand manual 4,5,6 instruments. This has made it possible to achieve perfect shaping with the use of very few instruments in a short period of time and without the need for above average skills on the part of the operator. The super-elasticity has furthermore made it possible to carry out extremely conservative shapes, better centered, with less canal transportation and therefore with more respect of the original anatomy. In order to improve working safety, shorten preparation time and create a continuously tapered, conical flare of preparations advanced instrument designs with non-cutting tips, radial lands, different cross-sections, superior resistance to torsional 7,8,9 fracture and varying tapers have been developed. Truly, NiTi rotary instrumentation has been one of the most significant changes in dentistry in the past 10 25 years. All endodontic companies are trying to produce files that will work more efficiently and safely.

Some of the areas where file design continues to differ are:-

  •  Rotary files tip
  •  Rotary files taper design
  •  Presence of radial lands in the rotary file
  •  Rotary file rake angles
  •  Rotary file helical angles
  •  Rotary files pitch

Comparison Between Different types of Rotary Files.


Rotary files name

Cross-sectional Design

Tip Design

Taper types

Rotation speed(rpm)

Design features

Profile (Dentsply Maillefer)

Triple U shape with radial lands. Neutral rake angle planes dentin walls


Fixed Taper 2%,4%, and 6%


20 Helix Angle and constant pitch

ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer)

Convex triangular sharp cutting edge, No radial land.F3, F4, F5 have U flutes for increased flexibility


Variable taper along the length of each instrument


Pitch and helical angle balanced to prevent instruments screwing into canals

Wal-flex (waldent innovations pvt ltd)

Triangular shape with positive rake angle for cutting efficiency. No radial land


Fixed Taper 2%,4%, and 6%


Variable pitch. File have short cutting portion (12- 16mm)

RaCe (FKG Switzerland

Triangular shape (except RaCe 15/0.02 and 20/0.02 which have a square shape), two alternating cutting edges, no radial lands


Fixed Taper 2%,4%, 6%,8% and 10%


Alternating cutting edge along the file length due to alternating twisted and untwisted segments to reduce screw-in effect.


Evolution of Rotary Files

The first rotary NiTi file was designed by Dr. John McSpadden with a 0.02 taper and was introduced in the market in 1992. At that time File breakage issues were significant. Dr. Johnson in 1994 introduced the PROFILE rotary files system with 0.04 and 0.06 taper and the ORIFICE SHAPERS. By the mid to late 1990s, Greater Taper files - GT Rotary files System by Dr. Buchanan (DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties) became available, providing a fixed taper on a single file of 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12%. In general, first generation Ni-Ti files have fixed tapers of 4% and 6% over the length of their active blades. The single most important design feature of first generation Ni-Ti rotary file was passive radial lands. This made the file to stay centered in canal curvatures during work but these systems required n number of files to achieve preparation objectives.

The next generation of NiTi rotary files came to market in 2001. These rotary files were different from the previous generation in their cutting edges (and the absence of radial lands). It required less number of rotary files to fully prepare a canal compared to earlier version of rotary files. To this generation belongs EndoSequence (Brasseler USA) and BioRaCe (FKG Dentaire) which provide file lines with alternating contact point. This helps to discourage taper lock and the resultant screw effect associated with both passive and active fixed tapered Ni-Ti cutting endodontic files. Although these file lines still have a fixed taper design over their active portions. The critical breakthrough occurred when ProTaper NiTi rotary files (DENTSPLY) came to market. They have multiple increasing or decreasing percentage tapers on a single file. This revolutionary, progressively tapered design limits each file’s cutting action to a specific region of the canal and affords a shorter sequence of files to safely produce deep Schilderian shapes. During this time to increase the resistance to file separation, some manufacturers electropolished their files to remove surface irregularities caused from the traditional grinding process.  

Due to the development of new manufacturing technologies, it was possible to optimize the microstructure of NiTi alloys. Improvements in Ni-Ti metallurgy gave rise to the third generation of mechanical shaping files. In 2007, manufacturers began to focus on utilizing heating and cooling methods to reduce cyclic fatigue and improve safety when rotary Ni-Ti instruments work in more curved canals. Special heat treatment provides files with more resistance to stress and fatigue and hence, broken files. The instruments that underwent this type of processing include HYFLEX CM (HyFlex; Coltene Whaledent,), K3XF (SybronEndo,), PROFILE GT SERIES X (GTX; Dentsply), PROFILE VORTEX (Vortex) and VORTEX BLUE (Dentsply Tulsa),TWISTED FILES (TFs; SybronEndo , and WaveOne (DENTSPLY).  

Another advancement in canal preparation procedures utilizes reciprocation, which may be defined as any repetitive up-and-down or back-and-forth motion. In comparison to full rotation, a reciprocating file that utilizes an equal bidirectional movement requires more inward pressure to progress and will not cut as efficiently as a same-size rotary file. Also it is more limited in directing debris out of the canal. From these earlier experiences and better performance reached in reciprocation technology led to a fourth generation of instruments for shaping canals. The 4th generation comprises instruments used with a motion different from rotary or those crafted for as single file techniques which mean they can be used as the only tool to perform the whole shaping phase. ReDent-Nova (Henry Schein) introduced the self-adjusting file (SAF). It was designed as a thin-walled, hollow cylinder made out of a delicate NiTi grid, featured with an abrasive surface. It has a compressible open tube design. Regardless of the cross-sectional configuration of the canal, it is purported to exert uniform pressure on the dentinal walls. The SAF is mechanically driven by a handpiece that produces both a short 0.4 mm vertical amplitude stroke and vibrating movement with constant irrigation.Another most popular single-file concept is termed as WaveOne and RECIPROC (VDW). WaveOne is a convergence of the best design features from the second and third generation of files, coupled with a reciprocating motor that drives any given file in unequal bidirectional angles. The counterclockwise (CCW) engaging angle is 5 times the clockwise (CW) disengaging angle which is designed to be less than the elastic limit of the file. After 3 CCW and CW cutting cycles, the file will have rotated to 360°, or one circle. This reciprocating movement allows a file to more readily progress, efficiently cut, and effectively direct debris out of the canal.

The fifth generation of shaping files have a wave motion along the active part of the files. They have been designed such that the center of mass and/or the center of rotation are offset that conveys mechanical rotation into wave motion. This offset design serves to further minimize the engagement between the file and dentin. It also enhances direction of debris out of a canal and improves flexibility along the active portion of the file. Brands that produce variations of this technology are REVO-S (Medidenta), ONE SHAPE (Micro-Mega), and PROTAPER NEXT (Dentsply). Revo-S, is a unique system, uses only 3 instruments. It has an asymmetrical cross section which increases the available volume for upward debris removal. It has 3 cutting edges, all located at 3 different radiuses, R1, R2 and R3 which allows more flexibility and offers a better ability to negotiate curves.17 It produces a snake like movement inside the canal. One Shape is the one and only Nickel Titanium instrument in continuous rotation motion allows for curved canal negotiation with an instrumental and easy dynamic.It has a non- working (safety) tip which ensures an effective apical progression avoiding obstructions. The instrument presents with a variable cross-section along the blade. There are 3 different cross-section zones: The first zone presents a variable 3-cutting edge design. The second, prior to the transition, has a cross-section that progressively changes from 3 to 2 cutting edges. The last (coronal) is provided with 2 cutting edges. Protaper next rotary files are the convergence of 3 significant design features, including progressive percentage tapers on a single file, M-wire technology, and the fifth generation of continuous improvement, the offset design. The ProTaper Next rotary files offer improved efficiency with fewer files when compared with the ProTaper Universal files. It has features like Variable taper, Rectangular off-center cross-section design for greater strength, Unique Asymmetric Rotary Motion and the axis of rotation differs from the center of mass. As a result in Protaper next rotary files only two points of the rectangular cross section touch the canal wall at a time. New proven M Wire Nickel Titanium alloy provides increased flexibility and resistance to cyclic fatigue as compared to traditional NiTi.

The concept of shaping the root canal walls and maintaining the original canal curvature and shape has now become the prime motive of designing the new generation of NiTi rotary files. In contrast to stainless steel files, Nickel Titanium rotary files have sufficient cleaning ability and can preserve the root canal anatomy. Thus appropriate handling of endomotor driven Nickel Titanium rotary files in combination with sufficient irrigation facilitates endodontic treatment substantially. To minimize the risk of instrument separation the use of Nickel Titanium rotary instruments with torque controlled endomotors not exceeding the recommended speed for the specific system should be used.

Different types of Best Rotary Files in Dentistry.

Single Rotary Files Systems 

  • Xpendo Shaper and XPENDO finishing File from FKG
  • OneShape by MicroMega
  • The RECIPROC Single file endodontics by VDW
  • Wave-One The Single file endodontics by Dentsply Maillefer
  • WaveOne Gold Reciprocating Files
  • Neo NiTi single file system-France
  • Tango Endo from EDS Dental
  • HyFlex EDM One File NiTi System    

Multiple Rotary Files System         

  • Wal-Flex Gold Rotary Files by Waldent
  • Dentsply Protaper Gold Rotary Files
  • Coltene HyFlex CM Rotary file
  • Hero Shaper Rotary Files
  • Sybron Endo Rotary Files
  • M2 Rotary Files
  • Healix Rotary Files
  • Neo Endo Rotary Files
  • EndoStar rotary files endo system from Europe
  • Mani Silk Rotary Files
  • Waldent protaper files
  • BT Race-excellent system
  • Dentsply Protaper NEXT from Tulsa -
  • Synronendo Twisted File
  • Kerr Endo K3/ Quantec
  • S5 Rotary Endo files from Sendoline, Sweden
  • Profile Rotary files Dentsply
  • Prosystem GT - not seen, days of 08, 10 taper are Over
  • ESX with booster tip - (same as BT Race)
  • TYPHOON Infinite Flex NiTi files- Not seen in market now
  • Triniti Rotary 02, 04 & 06 taper
  • F360 endo-system by Komet
  • Endo-Eze Genius Files
  • Endosequence System from Brasseler
  • Naviflex, Brasseler USA
  • Alpha system
  • RaCe System has been replaced by iRace and BioRace
  • D Race System For Retreatment
  • BioRace System Large Apical Sizes is future
  • Scout Race for curved canals FKG S-ApeX
  • SafeSider Endoexpress
  • Endowave from J Morita
  • Quantec system
  • Hero 642 Hero shaper and Revo S
  • V Taper Rotary system
  • Twisted Files with phase from Kerr Endo
  • Galaxy File, Diamond coated- Not in market now
  • Librator from Miltex Endodontics
  • Mtwo, tapered rotary and Flexmaster 02 taper rotary from VDW
  • Flexmaster rotary from VDW
  • Rapid Body shapers
  • Rotary files from Medidenta
  • GT Series endo files
  • Vortex Blue-With TO coating-improved Flex.. & fatigue resistance
  • Pathfile-A new Maillefer rotary Nickel Titanium system for quick and safe pre-flaring
  • ProGlider- Rotary Glide path file from Dentsply
  • Dentsply Path file rotary file
  • X Factor files from Clinical Res dental Canada
  • EndoMagic hornet files
  • CanalBrush by Coltene Whaledent
  • Self Adjusting file (SAF)
  • EdgeFile
  • FKG Rotary Files
  • Api Rotary Files

Retreatment Rotary Files Kits

  • R-Endo from Micro Mega
  • Protaper Universal from Dentsply
  • Masserann Kit to retrieve seperated instruments
  • Endo extractor system

Why to buy Endodontic NiTi Rotary Files Online from

Dentalkart is India's biggest and largest online dental shop and portal which provides best rotary files and the most competitive prices in India for the same. Apart from the endodontic rotary files and hand files , dentalkart is the best online shop for other endodontic instruments and equipments like Endomotor, Apex locator , endoactivator , gutta percha cutter at best prices in India and across the world.